Mental Health Mondays | Psychotic Disorders

Psychotic disorders are mental health problems that cause a person to lose some touch with reality. They can cause severe disturbances in behaviour, thinking and emotions. A psychotic disorder can severely disrupt a person’s life. (Tweet This). Relationships, work and self-care can be difficult to initiate and/or maintain.

There are four phases that vary in length from person to person, during a psychotic episode:

  1. Promorbid Phase: Time before symptoms start
  2. Prodrome Phase: The symptoms are vague and hardly noticeable (e.g. they may be mistaken for “typical” teenage behaviour).
  3. Acute Phase: Psychotic symptoms are experienced (e.g., hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking and behaviour)
  4. Recovery Phase: With treatment, most people recover from the psychotic episode. Some people have one episode and never experience another one.

Common Signs and Symptoms that a Psychotic Disorder is Developing

Changes in Emotion and Motivation:

  • Depression
  • Mood Swings
  • Increased Anxiety
  • Suspiciousness, a constant feeling of being watched
  • Blunted, flat or inappropriate emotion.
  • Irrational, angry or fearful responses to friends and family.
  • Change in appetite
  • Reduced energy and motivation.

Changes in Thinking and Perception:

  • Difficulties with concentration
  • Sense of alteration of self, others or the outside world (e.g. feeling that self or others have changed or are acting differently in some way).
  • Inability to turn off their imagination, odd ideas
  • Unusual perceptual experiences (e.g., a reduced or greater intensity of smell, sound or colour).
  • Inappropriate use of language – words don’t make sense to others.
  • Difficulty controlling thoughts

Changes in Behaviour:

  • Sleep disturbances
  • Loss of appetite
  • Withdrawal from activities and social contacts
  • Deterioration in studies or work
  • Deterioration in personal hygiene
  • Physical symptoms (e.g., weakness, pains, bizarre body sensations)
  • Sudden excesses (e.g., extreme religiosity, extreme activity)

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a complex mental health problem. It is a biological illness that affects the brain and has specific symptoms due to the changes in the brain.

Signs and Symptoms of Schizophrenia

There are “positive” and “negative” symptoms of Schizophrenia. This does not mean good or bad symptoms, but rather Positive symptoms are symptoms added to the person, while negative symptoms are things taken away from the person.

Positive Symptoms:

  • Delusions: Fixed, false beliefs that are not culturally sanctioned.
  • Hallucinations: Perceptual experiences in which a person, sees, hears, smells, tastes, or feels, something that is not actually there.

Negative Symptoms:

  • Loss of drive: The person may lack motivation and drive.
  • Blunted emotions: The person may not express emotions or their emotions may be inappropriate for the circumstances.
  • Social withdrawal: The person will often withdrawal from other people, even close family and friends.
  • Cognitive impairment (Thinking Difficulties): The person may have trouble with concentration, memory and the ability to plan.

Risk Factors and Possible Causes of Schizophrenia:

  1. Genetic Factors: It is not directly inherited but people who have a parent who is affected or a family history are more likely to develop Schizophrenia.
  2. Biochemical factors: The changes in the brain caused by schizophrenia are not fully understood. However, chemical messengers in the brain seem to be involved.
  3. Stress: The onset of Schizophrenia often follows stressful events in a person’s life.
  4. Other Factors: There are otherfactorsthatmaycontribute in some causes. This could include:
    1. Head injury
    2. complications during pregnancy
    3. birth and early life
    4. and problems with brain development during adolescence.

Other Psychotic Disorders:

Schizoaffective Disorder

Sometimes a person can be diagnosed with more than one mental health problem. A Person with schizoaffective disorder meets the criteria of both schizophrenia and a mood disorder (i.e., depression or bipolar).

Psychotic Depression

Sometimes depression can be so intense that it causes psychotic symptoms. For example. a person experiencing depression may have delusions involving guilt, severe physical illness, persecution or hopelessness.

Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder

Psychosis with hallucinations and delusions can be brought on by substance use (intoxication or withdrawal).

 

 

2 thoughts on “Mental Health Mondays | Psychotic Disorders

  1. I appreciate the article. As you mentioned, mental health disorders can creep up on us and bloom later on in life. Oftentimes and speaking for myself, multiple conditions occur.

    Treatment processes have to be approached scientifically. Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes. Patience is hard to grasp. Connecting with reality is a challenge. Psychiatrists have to prescribe, monitor, and adjust continually. The majority of people self-medicate. I just read an article today about celebrities who suffer from mental illnesses. That is another reminder, that I too, can disguise and hide my pain. Some of us would make wonderful actresses and actors.

    Most people do not understand the depth and role our brains have on psychiatric disorders. Few people reach out for help: That requires humility and courage. I always enjoy reading your posts.

    Remember that help is near;.just reach for it. Write in a journal. Call someone who understands and listens. Meditate. Call a crisis hotline. Use mental health benefits, if available. Take a 10-minute fast paced walk. Count your blessings.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s